José Gálvez Square
(Coronel José Gálvez Egúsquiza Square)
Eduardo Polack postcard
En los primeros años de la República era conocida como Plaza del Mercado. Adquirió su carácter actual de plaza pública conmemorativa en los últimos años del siglo XIX para albergar un busto esculpido en honor de José Gálvez Egúsquiza, Ministro de Defensa y héroe del Combate del Dos de Mayo de 1866, obsequiado al pueblo chalaco por el escultor italiano Ulderico Tenderini. El busto había estado localizado desde 1869 en una esquina de la Plaza Matriz, frente a la Casa Valega, La plaza fue denominada originalmente Plaza Dos de Mayo y fue edificada bajo los patrones del estilo neoclásico republicano finisecular, muy influenciado por el academicismo francés en boga. En sus inicios, el busto de Gálvez colocado sobre un pedestal y protegido por una verja de hierro, estaba escoltado por un bello espacio ajardinado central que rodeaba una fuente y estaba igualmente protegido por una reja de hierro. Su piso era de canto rodado
On August 21, 1936, on the occasion of celebrating the “Centenary of the Political Independence of Callao” (in 1836, Andrés de Santa Cruz, Protector of the Peruvian-Bolivian Confederation elevated Callao to a Litoral Province, to give it greater administrative autonomy) The square was remodeled to place a new, more important, full-length effigy of José Gálvez, which began to occupy the center of it, as it currently stands. The small original bust was donated by the Municipality of Callao and transferred with all honors to the patio of the emblematic Dos de Mayo School in Callao, where it is located today.
They surround Plaza Gálvez, a semi-enclosed square, with only two streets for vehicular use (Salaverry and José Gálvez streets), a series of equally late Republican style buildings of important workmanship and heritage value, built between the last years of the 19th century. and early 20th century. To the west of the square, there is a large three-story building with continuous wooden balconies on its upper floors that served as very luxurious accommodation for officers and sailors arriving on merchant ships of English origin. Inside there was a famous bar and the floors were connected by an elevator.
Eduardo Polack postcard
Towards the north, a house that covers an entire block with a two-story backing on Libertad, very sober with square doors and flush wooden balconies.
To the east are two beautiful two-story buildings, with characteristic portals or porches, supported by wooden columns and wooden ceilings. One of them has doors and windows with academic-type frames, a beautiful balustrade and an ostentatious finish where the date of its completion is verified, 1906. The second is in poor condition due to having suffered a large fire.
To the south, a high-rise single-story building housed warehouses and at the beginning of the 20th century and a theater, today with large windows protected with iron bars.
On the border with Jirón Libertad, a three-story building with large warehouse doors; its second floor with open parapet balconies and the third floor with a continuous balcony.
Source: Blog. “The Callao that left us.”
Image from the Humberto Currarino collection
The Plaza, which has an approximate area of 3,171.55 m2, has undergone new remodeling interventions in the years 1958 and 2007, and is declared a Monumental Urban Environment by Supreme Resolution No. 2900-72-ED of December 28, 1972, as well as the buildings that surround it, are declared by different resolutions as part of the Cultural Heritage of the Nation as monuments.
Historian of the Directorate of Real Estate Historical Heritage
Ministry of Culture of Peru